Kenneth vandellen macomb community college dr. These people have only succeeded in correctly showing that one can fool a single radiometric dating method when one uses it improperly. Rubidium has a larger atomic diameter than strontium so rubidium does not fit into the crystal structure of some minerals as well as others. Carbon 14 is said to be cosmogenic because it is produced by cosmic rays hitting the earth s atmosphere. The only isotopes present with shorter half lives are those that have a source constantly replenishing them.
Heavy isotopes oxygen 18 and deuterium are depleted more in winter. A persuasive book written for the christian layman. Both parent and daughter isotopes are ratioed to a daughter element isotope that is not produced by radioactive decay.Since samarium neodymium dating is somewhat easier the lutetium hafnium method is used less often.